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Three Christs follows Dr. Alan Stone who is treating three paranoid schizophrenic patients at the Ypsilanti State Hospital in Michigan, each of whom believed they were Jesus Christ. What transpires is both comic and deeply moving; release date - 2017; ; 5,9 of 10 Star; Drama; writers - Eric Nazarian.
Edit Storyline Three Christs tells the story of an extraordinary experiment that began in 1959 at Michigan's Ypsilanti State Hospital, where Dr. Alan Stone treated three paranoid schizophrenic patients who each believe they are Jesus Christ. Dr. Stone pioneers a simple, yet revolutionary treatment: instead of submitting the patients to electroshock, forced restraints and tranquilizers, he puts them in a room together to confront their delusions. What transpires is a darkly comic, intensely dramatic story about the nature of identity and the power of empathy. Plot Summary | Add Synopsis Motion Picture Rating ( MPAA) Rated R for disturbing material, sexual content and brief drug use Details Release Date: 3 January 2020 (USA) See more » Also Known As: Three Christs Box Office Cumulative Worldwide Gross: $36, 723 See more on IMDbPro » Company Credits Technical Specs See full technical specs » Did You Know? Trivia The film's premiere was at TIFF in Toronto in September 2017. See more ».
Three christ des saints. The christmas list mimi rogers dvd. Three christina. Three christs reviews. Critics Consensus Three Christs is far from an unholy mess, but this fact-based drama forsakes its talented cast with a disappointingly facile treatment of genuinely interesting themes. 43% TOMATOMETER Total Count: 46 62% Audience Score User Ratings: 41 Three Christs Ratings & Reviews Explanation Tickets & Showtimes The movie doesn't seem to be playing near you. Go back Enter your location to see showtimes near you. Three Christs Photos Movie Info In 1959, psychiatrist Dr. Alan Stone (Richard Gere) arrives at a mental hospital in Ypsilanti, Michigan armed with the radical belief that schizophrenic patients should be treated not with confinement and electroshock therapy but with empathy and understanding. As his first study, he takes on the particularly challenging case of three men-Joseph (Peter Dinklage), Leon (Walton Goggins), and Clyde (Bradley Whitford)-each of whom believes they are Jesus Christ. Hoping that by getting them together in the same room to confront their delusions he can break through to them, Dr. Stone begins a risky, unprecedented experiment that will push the boundaries of psychiatric medicine and leave everyone involved-including Dr. Stone himself-profoundly changed. Based on a remarkable true story, Three Christs is a fascinating and moving look at one man's journey into the deepest mysteries of the human mind. Rating: R (for disturbing material, sexual content and brief drug use) Genre: Directed By: Written By: In Theaters: Jan 10, 2020 limited On Disc/Streaming: Runtime: 109 minutes Studio: IFC Films Cast News & Interviews for Three Christs Critic Reviews for Three Christs Audience Reviews for Three Christs Three Christs Quotes Movie & TV guides.
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Three christs film review. "Three Christs" was a last minute choice of mine at the TIFF. As a big Dinklage's fan, and considering that it was a world premiere, it was easy enough to go check it out. I'm glad I did. This movie is one about the brain and its struggles, but it does so with a big heart. It's funny and touching with a good balance, and the acting is top notch (I'm actually a bigger Dinklage's fan after the movie. The underlying themes about psychiatry as science and its potential negative effect on personality, the nature of identity, the complex interaction of desire and fear are inhabiting the film and are as relevant today as they were at the time. In summary, a great entertaining movie with a deeper layer. and a stellar Dinklage.
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Three christs cast. The plural of Jesus is Jesupodes. Three christs interview. The Three Christs of Ypsilanti: A Psychological Study by Milton Rokeach Open Preview See a Problem? We’d love your help. Let us know what’s wrong with this preview of The Three Christs of Ypsilanti by Milton Rokeach. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Be the first to ask a question about The Three Christs of Ypsilanti · 707 ratings 89 reviews Start your review of The Three Christs of Ypsilanti: A Psychological Study Three schizophrenics—Clyde, Joseph, and Leon—are brought together in a Michigan state mental institution in 1959 (before the onset of the devastating 'deinstitutionalization' that Rick Moody laments in his introduction). Each one believes he is God, in some manifestation: either originary or reincarnated. Not a god among gods, but the one true authoritative God of the Judeo-Christian tradition, albeit with the baroque and often unintelligible embellishments of the psychotic mind. Clinical Three schizophrenics—Clyde, Joseph, and Leon—are brought together in a Michigan state mental institution in 1959 (before the onset of the devastating 'deinstitutionalization' that Rick Moody laments in his introduction). Clinical psychologist Milton Rokeach and his assistants undertake a unique speculative 'treatment'—to bring these mutually incompatible identities into conflict with one another in carefully controlled meetings and pointed discussions. The hope is that the tension yielded from these encounters will inspire some (admittedly crude and only preliminary) insight into these patients' own delusions. Of course, the project is ultimately a failure in the rigorous sense. (This is not exactly a spoiler—since over fifty years later schizophrenia is still very much with us. ) But The Three Christs of Ypsilanti remains relevant and important to this day not necessarily with respect to its stated clinical purpose, but rather in the many questions and related concerns that it raises along the way. What consititutes human identity? Why does identity appear to have reached a crisis state in modern times? How does a psychologist successfully manage the problematic ethics of provoking a schizophrenic in the attempt to improve his condition? Do psychotics truly believe in their delusions to the same extent that non-psychotics believe in the world around them? How can psychological treatment ever hope to 'reach' a schizophrenic when, by definition, he is suspicious of reality and rejects all real-world authorities? The questions are numerous, the answers are few and far between, but the process is thought-provoking. Leon, the youngest of the schizophrenics, is particularly captivating; unlike the other two Christs, his psychosis hasn't advanced to a stage where he completely neglects rational considerations. He still attempts to arrange his delusions in an internally-consistent fashion and often displays remarkable insight into what Rokeach and his assistants are trying to do to the three Christs. As such, he is the only one of three who undergoes profound changes during the experiment—although these changes don't necessarily point to a perceivable improvement in his condition. Yes, the riddle of schizophrenia continues..... I noticed him first during the national anthem. A young woman with a lovely voice was doing the honors when just across the aisle, ten feet away from me, this guy started singing. Sorta. He got some of the words right; less of the melody. He was not in step with the lovely voice. No, it was guttural, spastic, jabs at a song. He would have had my attention even if I wasn't contemporaneously reading a book about three schizophrenics, paranoid types. He was alone and he was not looking for company. I noticed him first during the national anthem. He was alone and he was not looking for company. This was between him and that game out there. He never had a drink or so much as a hot dog. There was a pop fly to our rookie first-baseman, who did not let our second baseman call him off. He should have, but he still made the catch. My neighbor jumped up: CALLHIMOFFCALLHIMOFFCALLHIMOFFCALLHIMOFFCALLHIMOFF....... With a lot of foot-stomping and pointing to make the point. Sometimes he stood up and made repeated throat-slashing gestures. But other times, he just moved his fingers in some kind of dissonant necessity. Felipe Rivero walked two men in a row, which caused my neighbor to yell: TAKEHIMOUTTAKEHIMOUTTAKEHIMOUTTAKEHIMOUT...... Which continued pretty much until Felipe Rivero induced the next batter to ground into an inning-ending double play, which caused my neighbor to utter: GOODJOBGOODJOBGOODJOBGOODJOB....... But I know that dichotomy of emotion. The thing was: the guy kind of knew the game; he was just, well, animated. Okay, he was very animated. He was not more upset than me that the locals lost a baseball game on a perfect August afternoon. I just didn't alarm an entire section of paying customers. But, as I said, he had my attention as I was reading this The Three Christs of Ypsilanti. What, if anything, should we do with such a guy? ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ Milton Rokeach went out of his way in the late 1950's to find three men in the mental institutions of Michigan who had a delusional belief they were someone else. No Napoleons or Hitlers were available. But he found three Christs. He got them reassigned to the same hospital, and to the same study group. His idea was to make these three confront themselves with the same delusional idea of identity. And, as if this was not enough, he wrote letters to them from some of their imaginary friends, and some real ones. I shuddered at this. It reminded me of the the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. * Or Pavlovian dogs. So, this study was fascinating, yet creepy. The sexual component of their illnesses was manifest, yet they introduced a female therapist into the group to see what reaction that might have. Duh. In an afterword, twenty years after the book was first written, the author himself questions "the ethics of such a confrontation. " Still, it was fascinating, if uncomfortable. In a day game between research psychologists and the psychotics, I will root for the psychotics. And probably stomp my feet and butcher 'Take Me out to the Ballgame'. Though there is no chance I will drop my beer. I ain't that crazy. __________________ *I drop a footnote only to mention that the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment involved not treating syphilis patients, as opposed to injecting them with syphilis, which did not occur, but has, unfortunately, been widely believed. **I offer this un-noted footnote for women equality advocates everywhere. The author used a 'control group' in his study. The control group was three delusional women in the same hospital (one woman believed she was Cinderella). The author: It must be frankly admitted, however, that although we spent about the same amount of time during the first six months with these three women, our interests were directed elsewhere, and thus, from a technical point of view, the attention we paid them did not have the same quality or intensity as that we paid the three men... In 1959, Milton Rokeach, a social psychologist working at Ypsilanti State Hospital in Ypsilanti, Michigan, brought together three patients who each firmly believed he was Jesus Christ. Rokeach says, “Initially, my main purpose in bringing them together was to explore the processes by which their delusional systems of belief and their behavior might change if they were confronted with the ultimate contradiction conceivable for human beings: more than one person claiming the same identity. ” His In 1959, Milton Rokeach, a social psychologist working at Ypsilanti State Hospital in Ypsilanti, Michigan, brought together three patients who each firmly believed he was Jesus Christ. ” His study was inspired in part on an account set out by Voltaire in which a man, Simon Morin, believing he was Christ ran into another man proclaiming to be Christ. Simon exclaimed that the other must be crazy and, realizing what this meant, was cured of his delusion for a time (though he was eventually burned at the stake). As he introduces the study, Rokeach says, “This is the only study on which I have ever worked that has aroused the interest of children. ” I must say, it’s easy to see why. This is a fascinating look into the minds of three disturbed men. The three patients are not referred to by their real names, though the book is so well written that these names, as simple as they are, are permanently part of my literary consciousness. Clyde Benson was the oldest. At 70, he had been hospitalized for 17 years after suffering from a series of tragedies in a short period of time that took from him his parents and his wife (in a botched abortion). Rokeach makes the case that Mr. Benson was never really his own man, that since childhood he had allowed others to make decisions for him, and the strain of losing these authorities in his life was too much. In this book, Mr. Benson is easily forgotten. He’s always sitting there during the meetings, but he rarely speaks, or if he does it is mostly gibberish. Perhaps because of this, Rokeach rarely has the book focus on him, though he does have some good lines, like this one: Late at night. All fifteen patients in the dorm are in their beds, but there is a great deal of restlessness because one of the patients is snoring loudly. Finally one of the patients, exasperated, yells: “Jesus Christ! Quit that snoring. ” Whereupon Clyde, rearing up in his bed, replies: “That wasn’t me who was snoring. It was him! ” Joseph Cassel was 58 and had been hospitalized for nearly 20 years. A timid man, he grew up with a strict father (who called him Josephine) in a french-speaking household in Canada. Perhaps as a response to the fact that he was not allowed to bring anything “English” into the home, Joseph, besides considering himself Jesus Christ, also considers himself a patriot of England, who protects him and whom he protects. One of the strangest accounts in the study is one when, in peril of losing his beloved placebos, Joseph still will not say that the hospital is not an English stronghold. He doesn’t even have to believe this to keep his placebos; he need only pretend — to lie. He won’t do it. Interestingly, Rokeach notes that had he lied, it would have been a sign of improvement. The youngest was Leon Gabor, at 38, who had been hospitalized for five years already. Leon was raised by a super-religious mother who, by all evidence, was severely psychotic herself. She instilled in Leon a profound sense of sexual guilt that he struggles with through the entire book, particularly since he is probably gay. Leon receives a great deal of attention throughout the book. He’s vocal and causes the most conflicts. It also seems he is the smartest, or, at least, he is the only one of the men who doesn’t simply deny the others’ claims but tries to reconcile everything. Rokeach seems particularly hopeful that Leon can be helped. So Clyde, Joseph, and Leon are brought together. They sleep in adjacent beds, eat in the same room, have the same work duties, and hold meetings each day. The meetings take up a large part of the book as we watch these men interact with each other, sometimes with a great deal of tension and sometimes with what can almost be brotherly love — I say “almost” because even though the relationship gives them some contact they desperately desire, they also desperately want to hold on to their beliefs and fret each time they are challenged. Remarkably, The Three Christs of Ypsilanti is not clinical in tone. Indeed, Rokeach has a great sense of tone, understatement, and timing, that one would think he was also a great novelist. These men are brought to life before our eyes, and we feel their pain and feel compassion towards them. Some parts are funny (like the “squelch eye” incident), and many are incredibly sad. Yes, it’s very sad, and we can credit Rokeach for helping us feel these emotions through his highly skilled presentation. However, we can also blame him for being the source of some of the more terrible passage. This is a deeply troubling book. In his afterword, written twenty years later, Rokeach doesn’t apologize for his experiment, but he admits that, in a way, there were four men who thought they were god — the three patients and himself, the psychologist who, albeit in the pursuit of knowledge and in the hopes of helping the men, played with their lives. In the introduction, Rokeach explains that while the initial plan was to see what happened when these men were brought together, “[s]ubsequently, a second purpose emerged: an exploration of the processes by which systems of belief and behavior might be changed through messages purporting to come from significant authorities who existed only in the imaginations of the delusional Christs. ” Fully hoping to help these men out, constantly scrutinizing ethical concerns, Rokeach assumes writes letters to Joseph and Leon pretending to be authority figures from their delusions. For example, Joseph rejects his real father (to an extent — he calls him Josephine after all) and has taken to calling the head of Ypsilanti “dad. ” With permission from “dad, ” Rokeach begins writing to Joseph, asking him to do certain things, hoping that because of his trust in this authority figure, Joseph will begin to changes some of his delusions. This failed, as shown above when Joseph simply would not disclaim that the hospital was an English stronghold. But even more heart-breaking and cruel were Rokeach’s letters to Leon in which Rokeach assumed the guise of Leon’s non-existent wife. Though never married, Leon often buttressed his claims to godliness by giving details about fictional women in his life, many of whom were gods in their own right and who became his wife. But does Leon actually believe in these women? And what if he received a letter from one? Here is his response to the first: Leon’s initial response is disbelief. Without divulging the contents of the letter, he tells the aide that although he has never seen his wife’s handwriting he knows that she didn’t write or sign this letter. He says further that he doesn’t like the idea of people imposing on his beliefs and that he is going to look into this. A couple of hours later, during the daily meeting, we notice Leon is extremely depressed and we ask him why. He evasively replies that he is meditating, but he does not mention the letter. This is the first time, as far as we know, that he has ever kept information from us. August 4. This is the day Leon’s wife is supposed to visit him. He goes outdoors shortly before the appointed hour and does not return until it is well past. So, yes, both Leon and Joseph believe in the delusions they have constructed, and in assuming these authorities’ voices, Rokeach, in a way, assumes the role of a god in the lives of these troubled men. As I said above, the book is hardly clinical in its tone. It does not read like a study at all but rather like a deeply felt narrative of the troubles of these three men who came together for a time in Ypsilanti State Hospital. I highly recommend it... The Three Christs of Ypsilanti is an early psychology case study involving three men in Ypsilanti State Hospital who think they are Jesus. The problem with reading this now is that it seems unethical and cruel, mostly because it is unethical and cruel. I had to keep reminding myself that this was an experiment that started in 1959, Freud had only been dead for 20 years, Erik Erikson was publishing all of his work, and most of the important papers that Rokeach sites are less than ten years old. The Three Christs of Ypsilanti is an early psychology case study involving three men in Ypsilanti State Hospital who think they are Jesus. I had to keep reminding myself that this was an experiment that started in 1959, Freud had only been dead for 20 years, Erik Erikson was publishing all of his work, and most of the important papers that Rokeach sites are less than ten years old. They did not know anything about psychology. It was still an infant practice. Keeping this into perspective, the whole idea is based on the concept that if a person is faced with contradictions to his delusion, would it cure him? The answer was not black and white, so they decide to further experiments, make the confrontations stronger, and hopefully get positive results. By today's standards, this is not ethical research. There is no real control group (even though Rokeach mentions one at the end about three ladies, but they do not believe they are the same person at all), and there is no objective veiwpoint. The researchers were just as much a part of manipulating the outcome as the patients were part of the experiment, and the effects of this study can actually be written off as results due to researcher bias. Even still this is kind of interesting. There are some very funny insults and situations. There are some very convoluted explainations by the patients that actually make you feel sorry for them, and there are some messed up situations that the researchers put them in. It was interesting, but it makes me kind of sad for the patients that were involved. Nobody should be a guinea pig without their permission. Thankfully research has changed and it is not as cringe-worthy as this... This was on my shelf for some time because I loved the idea of it so much I was afraid reading the book might disappoint me. No need to fear. It was a fascinating book. Near the beginning it did make me laugh because the three men just seemed so plum crazy. But that’s the thing: they are crazy, and if it’s a bit comic, it’s also terribly sad. The three Christs are 1) Clyde, a farmer near 70 who’d become a violent drunk before being committed; 2) Joseph, a thwarted writer nearing 60 who believes This was on my shelf for some time because I loved the idea of it so much I was afraid reading the book might disappoint me. The three Christs are 1) Clyde, a farmer near 70 who’d become a violent drunk before being committed; 2) Joseph, a thwarted writer nearing 60 who believes that as God his top job is protecting England; and 3) Leon, the 30-something son of a fanatically devout single mother, who invents the ‘squelch chamber’ and enters marriage with the Eve figure of the Yeti. There are moments of hilarity and tenderness and seeming progress and setbacks. There are passages on identity and belief systems that are very interesting and add to the story and the reader's understanding. There’s some marvelous diction - the somewhat old-timey use of “fellow” and “sir” in the group, or Clyde calling Leon a “rerise” because he claims to have been resurrected. In the epilogue, the author regrets some aspects of his approach, and I think he is right to do so. Nevertheless, I also thought his intentions were mostly good, and I’m afraid there was slim chance of any of these men being escorted out of insanity. As the author says, they went crazy with very good reasons... Dec 30, 2013 Kyle Muntz rated it it was amazing This is a remarkable, utterly unique book focusing on a (somewhat ethically questionable) experiment of putting three schizophrenics who all thought of themselves as being Jesus Christ into a focus group; and seeing what happened. Despite being a fairly serious psychological study, it's thoughtfully, sometimes beautifully written by Rokeach, who works transcripts of the 3 men into a narrative with all the force of a novel. It's a challenging, hopeless story but one with moments of warmth This is a remarkable, utterly unique book focusing on a (somewhat ethically questionable) experiment of putting three schizophrenics who all thought of themselves as being Jesus Christ into a focus group; and seeing what happened. It's a challenging, hopeless story but one with moments of warmth (especially later on, when you see the 3 Christs forming a sort of camaraderie), but it's Leon who really makes the book interesting. A tragic, vaguely Christlike figure himself, more than the others Leon struggles to make sense of an intensely complex physiological world he's constructed for himself, one where sexual anxiety, metaphysics, and identity become strange, profound, and frightening. He talks like a character from a Beckette play, but he was a real person, and tormented. And in the end no one gets better. This isn't an easy book to read but I think it's a powerful and interesting one, and (though I read an older edition) I'm glad the New York Times is keeping it in print, since I suspect there will never be anything else like it... Kind of amusing, maybe something you need to read as a psychologist but probably not? Feb 08, 2019 Casey Darnell really liked it “It's only when a man doesn't feel that he's a man that he has to be a god. ” What happens when you take three mentally-ill men, who all think that they are Jesus Christ, and room them together at a psychiatric hospital all while lying to and manipulating them? In 1959 social psychologist Milton Rokeach decided to find out. The Three Christs of Ypsilanti is hilarious, yet deeply sad and troubling. In the modern age something like this would never happen, due to ethics and morality committees. It's “It's only when a man doesn't feel that he's a man that he has to be a god. It's truly fascinating to read though. The graduate students who worked with Rokeach on this have been very critical of this 'experiment', due to the amount of dishonesty and manipulation from Rokeach and the distress that it caused to the patients... It's incredible how smart these three men were, specifically Leon and then Joseph, not so much Clyde. But Leon was a sage of sorts for me. Many of his comments and explanations, his unique way of seeing the world, were intricately well informed. I believed him to be a prophet, Joseph a minor prophet; prophets of confusion, of delusion, and prophets of their own schizophrenic prisons that for our sake (society's) doubled up by shuffled up and down sterile bleak psych-ward halls It's incredible how smart these three men were, specifically Leon and then Joseph, not so much Clyde. I believed him to be a prophet, Joseph a minor prophet; prophets of confusion, of delusion, and prophets of their own schizophrenic prisons that for our sake (society's) doubled up by shuffled up and down sterile bleak psych-ward halls until death released us from their wisdoms... Aug 23, 2019 Richard Three schizophreniacs think that they're Christ, doctor puts them together to talk about it. This should be required reading alongside William James' Varieties of Religious Experience. This is, in concept, a book about three men who believe themselves to be Jesus Christ, yet in practice that material doesn't make up the substance of the book to any great degree. Clyde, Joseph, and Leon don't grow long beards or don light robes, or pass through the halls of the psych ward handing out bread and grape juice. With the exception of Clyde, whose psychology is comparatively simple and childlike, and whose story makes up regrettably little of this book, these men believe themselves to This is, in concept, a book about three men who believe themselves to be Jesus Christ, yet in practice that material doesn't make up the substance of the book to any great degree. With the exception of Clyde, whose psychology is comparatively simple and childlike, and whose story makes up regrettably little of this book, these men believe themselves to be very many things, Jesus Christ and God included. Joseph Cassel, in addition to being the grown-up Christ Child, is an Englishman named John Michael Ernahue, and the real author of the works of Freud, H. G. Wells, Flaubert, and others. Leon Gabor is a jerboa rat, a Yeti, a hermaphrodite, a pile of dung, and a great many other things, both living and imaginary, sentient and nonsentient, as well as the Nazarite. These are early complications in Dr. Rokeach's experiments; treating three men who have taken on the identity of the son of God isn't so simple as locating the three men shuffling around with thorn crowns and then having them debate various principles of scripture. One finds them, and then discovers that Christ delusions are only one of many schizophrenic constructions with which these men are burdened. So, it can be said that the religious elements of this story are superficial, and that's more or less true with one exception; over the course of this book, we find that the strength of belief involved in maintaining a schizophrenic viewpoint rivals that of the most devoutly religious. When Leon works out elaborate logical systems about electronic interference, imaginary foster family members, invisible body parts, and lineage traceable to exotic and fantastic beasties, it is not for sheer love of confounding absurdity. These are the systems he erects to explain what no one else can explain to him: how he can Jesus Christ, and also be a weak and destitute man trapped in an insane asylum. The therapy Dr. Rokeach conducts over the course of this book is mostly old-fashioned and obsolete, so one shouldn't read this book expecting modern and professional treatment of schizophrenic individuals. Still, Rokeach is highly sympathetic to his patients and seems to have genuine affection for them, even if he occasionally seems hardly capable of concealing his irritation with the self-centered, overintellectualizing Leon. Rokeach is also a very fine writer and editor, and there are many moments he captures within this narrative that possess a special literary quality. Everyone is bound to have their personal favorite, and mine follows. It is Rokeach's beseeching, personal appeal to Leon that he discard his delusions, expressed in simpler, more transparent terms than he had employed previously. The dialogue begins with Rokeach stating that George Bernard Brown, a former doctor at the facility, was only a good man who cared about his patients, and not the Archangel Michael, as Leon believes. Leon insists: Leon: He was an instrumental god. I respect you as an instrumental god. Rokeach: I don't respect you as an instrumental god. I have a much bigger respect for you. I respect you as a man. Leon: I still have to consider myself an instrumental god. Rokeach: It's only when a man doesn't feel that he's a man that he has to be a god. Leon: Sir, if I don't respect you as an instrumental god, I'm taking away something that belongs to you. Rokeach: All you have to do is respect me as a man. Leon: Sir, to me a man is an instrumental god. I have to see the relationship to infinity. If I can see that, I'm satisfied... The author, a social psychologist, brings together three schizophrenic men who believe they are Christ (Clyde, a 70 year old farmer; Joseph, a 50 year old failed writer; and Leon, a 30 year old man who had a psychotic, controlling mother). Through daily meetings and certain questionably ethical experiments, Rokeach tries to see what will happen when men are presented with the impossible idea that two people share the exact same identity, and whether they can thus move closer to a realistic view The author, a social psychologist, brings together three schizophrenic men who believe they are Christ (Clyde, a 70 year old farmer; Joseph, a 50 year old failed writer; and Leon, a 30 year old man who had a psychotic, controlling mother). Through daily meetings and certain questionably ethical experiments, Rokeach tries to see what will happen when men are presented with the impossible idea that two people share the exact same identity, and whether they can thus move closer to a realistic view of the world. All three develop delusional reasons to explain away the discrepancy (the other two are dead; the other two are machines; the other two are patients in a psychiatric hospital). Although two of them improve socially, there is no change in their delusional states. It’s a fascinating, rather sad book: reading the nonsensical litany of paranoid ravings they spout in the transcripts of the interviews just shows how sad schizophrenia is, and how unlike identity delusion is in movies and television. There are few bizarre, too-good-to-be-true bits of amusement and amazement. For example, one man in the dorm is snoring, and another patient yells, “Jesus! Stop snoring! ’ Whereupon Clyde yells, “I’m not doing it, he is! ” Or the time that Joseph says he is God but also governor of Illinois, because “I have to earn my living, you know. ” But overall it’s a bit numbing, to peer so deeply into minds so clouded with paranoia and delusion. There is a very clear-eyed and perspicacious epilogue written by Rokeach twenty years after the study, in which he suggests that he is the fourth deluded ‘Christ, ’ trying to play God with the patients. I must agree, but his intentions were good, even if nothing much came of the experiment... Jul 01, 2007 Maria Caggiano liked it Recommends it for: People with a sense of humor about Psychiatry This book is the true account of a clinical psychologist who engineered to have 3 men all with the delusion that they were Jesus on the same psychiatric ward at the same time. In an act that I am sure would not be allowed by today's clinical practice guidelines, he ran group therapy sessions with just these three men and let them argue about who was the true savior. It is very odd and unbelievable. However, it is interesting if only from the perspective that we will most likely never be allowed This book is the true account of a clinical psychologist who engineered to have 3 men all with the delusion that they were Jesus on the same psychiatric ward at the same time. However, it is interesting if only from the perspective that we will most likely never be allowed the opportunity to have several people with the same but mutually exclusive delusion co-exist... Aug 26, 2012 Roger Milton Rokeach was a psychologist whose main interest was that of identity - he wondered how we develop one, and what makes us who we are. Something as basic as an identity is hard to study in an ethical fashion, as it is indeed one of the baselines of what makes all of us human. In order to try and get to the root of what is and isn't important in the formation of identity, Rokeach hit upon the idea of confronting people with what should be the most disturbing thing they could imagine - someone Milton Rokeach was a psychologist whose main interest was that of identity - he wondered how we develop one, and what makes us who we are. In order to try and get to the root of what is and isn't important in the formation of identity, Rokeach hit upon the idea of confronting people with what should be the most disturbing thing they could imagine - someone else claiming the same identity. He did this in the early 60s in Michigan, where, in the course of an experiment, he brought together three inmates of mental institutions who all claimed that they were Jesus Christ, and, by extension, God. The three Christs of Ypsilanti (Ypsilanti is the name of the institution where the three inmates were housed), is the result of just over two years of studying these three men. The premise of the experiment was relatively simple - house the three men in the same ward, have them work together, and bring them together in daily meetings - initially guided by Rokeach and his assistants, but later to be run entirely by the inmates themselves. The book takes the form of an extended research report, with reports of what is done to the patients, and their reactions. Initially, as one might expect, there is quite a bit of conflict between the three. This develops in some unexpected ways (from Rokeach's point of view). It seemed that, even in their delusional state, each of the three patients, to a greater or lesser extent, wishes to avoid conflict and "get along". They each had different tactics to get to a happier state - "Clyde" (each patient is referred to exclusively by nom-de-plumes throughout the work) simply denies the existence of the other two, referring to them as re-animated corpses. "Joseph" points out that the other two patients are in a mental hospital, so obviously they are sick - and then justifies his own stay there. "Leon", the most interesting of the three inmates in the book, changes in much bigger ways. He actually does change his identity - not, as Rokeach hoped might happen by recovering his "true" identity, but by humiliating himself with the name "Righteous Idealed Dung", and by trading his current "wife", the Virgin Mary, to a "wife" who is a Yeti. As Rokeach points out and the reader can glean, Leon has reacted to being confronted by other Christs by changing his delusional world system to fit - he continues to do this as the books progresses. As Rokeach realises the initial confrontation is not going to help the men in any way, he then tries a different tack - of using positive role models for the men in an attempt to get them to change their behaviour. He does this by the method of writing the inmates letters, purporting to be from these positive role models. In Leon's case, the letters come from his "Yeti wife". Initially Leon does react to the letters in a positive way, doing the things that his "wife" asks of him. However, as these requests become harder for him to perform (i. e. they ask him to do things more and more against his belief system), he separates himself from his "Yeti-wife", finally discarding her altogether in another change to his delusional world-system. Joseph is written to by the head of Ypsilanti hospital, whom he sees as his father. While he too changes some of his behaviours at the suggestion of the letters, he also baulks at anything that would make him confront his situation too nearly. So, this experiment also ended in a failure to improve the state of the patients. The truth of the matter is that Rokeach's work was always probably going to be unlikely to help any of the patients, and it was done really for his benefit, rather than theirs. The further into the book one reads, the more uncomfortable one gets with the ethics of the whole enterprise, particularly when the experiment ends after two years, and the patients are essentially dropped. In this edition of the work there is a postscript written by Rokeach in the 1980s in which he calls himself the "fourth Christ", and comes to a (belated) understanding that what he did was wrong in many ways. None of that makes the book any less fascinating to read - the long verbatim quotes from the patients do give a real insight into what it might mean to be "mad" - their occasional forays into the "real" world all the more poignant for what they say when deep in their delusions. While the experiments themselves may have ended in failure, the book that came out of them is much more that what it might be. Check out my other reviews at.. Feb 23, 2017 Raully What an unusual book - a medical write-up of a psychological experiment in the Michigan state asylum from the 1950s in which three individuals, each of whom believes themselves to be Jesus Christ, are forced to live together, eat together and cooperate. The initial hope is that since there is only one God, the three men will have to reassess their delusional identities when faced with one another. Yet the experimenters quickly move onto other approaches, including forged letters from fictional What an unusual book - a medical write-up of a psychological experiment in the Michigan state asylum from the 1950s in which three individuals, each of whom believes themselves to be Jesus Christ, are forced to live together, eat together and cooperate. Yet the experimenters quickly move onto other approaches, including forged letters from fictional people, pretty young assistants and distant directives from an absent father figure. The details in this book are worth savoring - Rokeach is a great writer who presents the subjects as rational individuals capable of interweaving new social realities into their delusional fantasies. But the real eye-opener here is the window into a time when the state fed, cared and controlled tens of thousands of "mentally deficient" individuals that both reminds me of Big Brother and yet brings out some nostalgia for a time when the state gave a damn about the less fortunate. And - oh, yeah - there's even a twist ending. Highly recommended... Sep 28, 2011 Greg Brown I really enjoyed it! Like most NYRB Classics, it’s a gem of a book—fascinating as a work of psychology, touching as a work of literature. I don’t want to give too much away about the plot, but here’s the premise: Rokeach’s academic work is all about the often-glacial systems of belief we base our lives on, and he wants to see what happens when two of our most deeply-held beliefs clash against each other. And what might be the most deeply-held beliefs involve our identity, specifically who we are I really enjoyed it! Like most NYRB Classics, it’s a gem of a book—fascinating as a work of psychology, touching as a work of literature. And what might be the most deeply-held beliefs involve our identity, specifically who we are and how that makes us… well… US! So Rokeach gets the bright idea to find several patients with delusions of identity, and he manages to find three within the Michigan state hospital system that all think they’re Jesus Christ. And in the very first chapter, he brings them together and the book goes from there. The book takes several twists-and-turns through its course, enough that I’d almost caution you against reading Rick Moody’s introduction or really anything about the book that could spoil things. It’s from a different era, back during institutionalization when doctors had an almost unparalleled level of control over their patients and did things that would be unthinkable today. Would strongly recommend!.. Apr 08, 2013 Tom Interesting book. What I liked most was the author's retrospective afterword written many years after the books initial publication. He admits his own megalomaniac tendencies concerning the study. Refers to himself as the fourth Christ in the study. This book also provides some terrifying insight into the loose ethics of mental health treatment a few decades ago. Writing letter to schizophrenic people claiming that you're their reincarnated blessed mother monkey wife was ok back then. Read this Interesting book. Read this if only for the very fact that it took place. Take away from it a better understanding of just how subjective the term sane can be... Aug 29, 2016 The Badger We read excerpts of this in my undergrad Abnormal Psych course, as well as watched some video clips. It's definitely worth a read--especially to see how the "Christs" acted around each other. Also, Ypsilanti is a tiny town, so having three patients with the same delusion is (pardon the pun) insane. This book was noteworthy because this was a once in a lifetime naturally occurring situation (in other words, "Christs" weren't flown in from other institutions to be studied together). Feb 15, 2008 Thomas Psych Fans and Buffs Recommended to Thomas by: Too Many Professors & "Dan" This book was like the Holy Grail after always hearing great things about it from various professors and friends. After years of searching (this was long before the Internet and Powells and whatnot) I came across it at a used book store. Was it worth all the hype? What is? Still an interesting experiment that would've made for a great 20/20 episode to watch. Oct 26, 2013 Koeeoaddi review of another edition psychophiles Three men think they're Jesus, two of them must be wrong. Want to know what would happen if three schizophrenics who each thinks he is Jesus are confronted with each other in a controlled setting? Answer: not much of interest. Though, IIRC, you do come to know these guys a bit. Ultimately, a sad little book. Would make a kickin' novel, though. the quirky condition of three paranoid schizophrenic would-be Christs serve as a vehicle to learn about the daily work of social psychologists in this book. This book is a great way to witness how social psychologists study people and see their particular framework of the world put in action. I learned about the different types of beliefs, central to peripheral, that form the bundle of a person and how central beliefs survive the challenge of resistance and contradiction. the introduction to this the quirky condition of three paranoid schizophrenic would-be Christs serve as a vehicle to learn about the daily work of social psychologists in this book. the introduction to this edition, written by a Rick Moody sadly did not live up to the impartial quality of the text itself. It used its position to argue that the withdrawal of government support for institutionalization, replaced by community-based mental health care, could trace direct lineage towards current proliferation of incarceration. I don't think this suffices to justify institutionalization, with its attendant abuses, similarity to prisons, and impotence at rehabilitation. He also defends the inadequacy of Freudian psychology, in the past mass-imposed despite lack of support from evidence or biological science, through this stupendously stupid statement: "Who is to say that these ideas (of Freud, Jung, Laing, and others) were wrong, simply because they did not effect a full-scale remission of symptoms? " What, that is exactly how we distinguish between right and wrong in science. A controlled study comparing successes of these approaches compared with pharmacology and a placebo is to say, Mr. Moody. As you subsequently admitted, "these ideas were more radical than those of the psychiatric mainstream of the time, and so were the sources of the ideas. " The radicality does not have any bearing on their truth. What they do have bearing on is how cautiously we should then impose them, which runs contrary to your suggestion of rashness... As Ive said previously, I'm usually not into non-fiction, but when I saw the title pf this book, I grabbed it. I went to school near this hospital, although I don't believe that I ever saw it. If my Mom had been alive I would have purchased to for her, nevertheless, it was a chore to read it. Amazon: On July 1, 1959, at Ypsilanti State Hospital in Michigan, the social psychologist Milton Rokeach brought together three paranoid schizophrenics: Clyde Benson, an elderly farmer and alcoholic; Joseph As Ive said previously, I'm usually not into non-fiction, but when I saw the title pf this book, I grabbed it. Amazon: On July 1, 1959, at Ypsilanti State Hospital in Michigan, the social psychologist Milton Rokeach brought together three paranoid schizophrenics: Clyde Benson, an elderly farmer and alcoholic; Joseph Cassel, a failed writer who was institutionalized after increasingly violent behavior toward his family; and Leon Gabor, a college dropout and veteran of World War II. The men had one thing in common: each believed himself to be Jesus Christ. Their extraordinary meeting and the two years they spent in one another’s company serves as the basis for an investigation into the nature of human identity, belief, and delusion that is poignant, amusing, and at times disturbing. Displaying the sympathy and subtlety of a gifted novelist, Rokeach draws us into the lives of three troubled and profoundly different men who find themselves “confronted with the ultimate contradiction conceivable for human beings: more than one person claiming the same identity. ” -.. What happens when three schizophrenics, all claiming to be the heir of God, are forced by an ethically dubious social scientist to interact? Not much, perhaps predictably – reason has very little effect on the insane, that's kind of the point of being insane, and our three Christ's maintain their sad delusions despite the best efforts of their therapist/tormentor. There's a certain sterile fascination to the fantasies of the severely mentally ill, as anyone who has had much interaction with them What happens when three schizophrenics, all claiming to be the heir of God, are forced by an ethically dubious social scientist to interact? Not much, perhaps predictably – reason has very little effect on the insane, that's kind of the point of being insane, and our three Christ's maintain their sad delusions despite the best efforts of their therapist/tormentor. There's a certain sterile fascination to the fantasies of the severely mentally ill, as anyone who has had much interaction with them can attest; primarily as a a strangely complex (if endlessly repetitive) form of world-building. I'm not sure how much relevance it has to the mental structures of more fully functioning human specimens however, and have often wondered (as a sort of meta-critique on psychoanalysis and its various children) if living in a leprosarium might give one confused ideas about the nature of a healthy man. That aside aside, it's an interesting read... The premise is more enticing than the promise. The Three Christs of Ypsilanti is a psychology text first and foremost. Had this been novelized, it probably would've yielded more insight and truth as the practices within are beyond outdated and problematic. It's interesting that the text has an epiphany in the form of Milton Rokeach's afterword written 20 years after initial publication. (You sort of read the whole thing for the last few pages. ) Rokeach admits the follies of his methodology and The premise is more enticing than the promise. ) Rokeach admits the follies of his methodology and finally sees that his part in the narrative, which he took pains to exclude, provides the truest takeaway for the reader. The text ends, and what was interesting had little to do with three schizophrenics. It was their sixties era psychologist--dropping acid and hellbent on building a legacy... Jan 24, 2020 Kimberly Three schizophrenics who believe they are Christ are forced together in this study in the late 1950s/early 1960s in a Ypsilanti, MI mental hospital. While it's definitely a clinical study, the report/book reads more like a narrative and gives insight into schizophrenia, identity, mental institutions, and ethical treatment of those with mental health issues. I wish the afterward, which was written 20 years after the clinical report, had been more than 2. 5 pages; Dr. Rokeach clearly had done Three schizophrenics who believe they are Christ are forced together in this study in the late 1950s/early 1960s in a Ypsilanti, MI mental hospital. Rokeach clearly had done significant thinking on his original study in the years after completing it. I'm intrigued to see how this book is translated into a movie starting Richard Gere soon... Even Rokeach admitted in an epilogue that he realized later how unethical this whole thing was. Most disturbing to me was when Rokeach and his colleagues wrote letters and made phony phone calls that only exacerbated the patients’ delusions, thus further confusing and upsetting them. Clearly there are moments when Rokeach is trying to help the patients but just as many where it seemed like he had a morbid curiosity to see what would happen if he fucked with brains that already were hard-pressed Even Rokeach admitted in an epilogue that he realized later how unethical this whole thing was. Clearly there are moments when Rokeach is trying to help the patients but just as many where it seemed like he had a morbid curiosity to see what would happen if he fucked with brains that already were hard-pressed to deal with the world around them... The title grabbed me on this one since I live in Ypsilanti. It's a classic, much-referenced case study of three paranoid-schizophrenic men who all claimed to be God/Christ who were patients at the Ypsilanti State Mental Hospital in 1959-1960. The book is quite outdated in terms of how we treat schizophrenia now - the idea of trying to do traditional Freudian psychotherapy with delusional patients seems ridiculous to most today. However, overall, I think it's still a worthy read, if outdated. Jul 25, 2017 Carl Stevens Some books you want to read for the premise. The idea of bringing together three paranoid schizophrenics who believe they are God is fascinating, but, I must admit, after a while their ravings start to sound too much like presidential addresses. It's a little hard to escape the feeling that this entire experiment is ridiculous and unethical (as Rokeach himself seems to have grown to recognize). But in this case at least, terrible therapy made for great literature. Very riveting read. I never thought I could be this into anything non-fiction - I was wrong. “ On Christmas. "Santa Claus represents God on assistance, " said Clyde. "Santa Claus is a negative-idealed god, the pagan god of material worship, " Leon stated. "Christmas means the rebirth, regeneration. Some people have Christmas every day. The Christmas tree stands up and either the wife trims it or they trim it together with righteous-idealed sexual intercourse. Or the husband prays to God through his Christmas tree and trims his bodily Christmas tree. Christ-mast; the mast of Christ, the upstanding penis—that's what it means to me. " "Santa Claus is a good symbolization for Christmas, " said Joseph. "Department stores, shopping, the coming of the New Year. Christmas means better business in the stores. ” — 5 likes “As soon as they leave, Leon says to me: "I disagree, sir. There are people who aren't insane, and I'm one of them. People who generalize are mentally ill. ” More quotes… Welcome back. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account.
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Three christs 2020. Three christian. Three christ church. The Three Christs of Ypsilanti File:The Three Christs of Ypsilanti 1964 Cover of the first edition Author Milton Rokeach Country United States Language English Subject Psychology, schizophrenia Publisher Knopf Publication date 1964 Pages 336 ISBN 0394703952 (1973 edition) The Three Christs of Ypsilanti (1964) is a book-length psychiatric case study by Milton Rokeach, concerning his experiment on a group of three paranoid schizophrenic patients at Ypsilanti State Hospital  in Ypsilanti, Michigan. The book details the interactions of the three patients, Clyde Benson, Joseph Cassel, and Leon Gabor, who each believed himself to be Jesus Christ. Synopsis Rokeach got the idea from an article in Harper's Magazine describing two women who both believed they were the Virgin Mary. After being assigned as psychiatric hospital roommates, one of the women recovered from her delusion as a result of conversations with the roommate and was discharged.  As a similar study of delusional belief systems, Rokeach brought together three men who each claimed to be Jesus Christ and confronted them with one another's conflicting claims, while encouraging them to interact personally as a support group. Rokeach also attempted to manipulate other aspects of their delusions by inventing messages from imaginary characters. He did not, as he had hoped, provoke any lessening of the patients' delusions, but did document a number of changes in their beliefs. While initially the three patients quarreled over who was holier and reached the point of physical altercation, they eventually each explained away the other two as being patients with a mental disability in a hospital, or dead and being operated by machines.  The graduate students who worked with Rokeach on the project have been strongly critical of the morality of the project because of the amount of dishonesty and manipulation by Rokeach and the amount of distress experienced by the patients.  Rokeach added a comment in the final revision of the book that, while the experiment did not cure any of the three Christs, "It did cure me of my godlike delusion that I could manipulate them out of their beliefs. "  Editions The Three Christs of Ypsilanti was first published in 1964. Rokeach came to think that his research had been manipulative and unethical, and he offered an apology in the afterword of the 1984 edition of the book: "I really had no right, even in the name of science, to play God and interfere round the clock with their daily lives. "  The book was re-published by New York Review Books in 2011.  References.
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